Modern panjistani and other Lahnda Languages

1) Panjistani (Northern Lahnda/Western Pahari/Pothwari/Mirpuri), ascertained by Mohammad Afzal, (London, UK; 1987).


The term is "Panjistani" comes from "Panjistan" most probably meaning "the land of five localities for example Mirpur, Poonch (kashmir), North Panjab or Panjistani boli-Mulak or speaking-country covering Greater Pothohar eg Rawalpindi-islamabad region, Plus Chakwal and Jhelum" (ascertained by Mohammad Afzal, London; 1987).

Current status;

Panjistani language has many heterogeneous and a diverse range of dialects; the following Varieties (or main dialect clusters) are covered in Mohammad Afzal's broad collective term "Modern Panjistani" formerly this language had many names e.g. North Panajbi, Pothohari/Pothwari, Pahari, Northern/Salt Range (or Northern) Shahpuri, Dhanni, Poonchi, Jhelumi, Mirpuri and Poonchi (Azad Kashmir) and even by some linguists without any local currency Northern Lahndi (or N. LAHNDA).

The recent emergence of Modern Panjistani.

Panjistani is the dominant language of Northern Panjab (or Panjsitan Region) and parts of kashmir and the language is gradually coming to be used for media, internet and educational works.

the major dialects according to Afzal (London, UK;1997) are;

1) Pothwari

2) Dahnni/Chakwali

3) Jhelumi

4) Poonchi

5) Mirpuri

6) Western Pahari

Pothwari (and to lesser extent Mirpuri) are the 2 main literary dialects used nowadays.

2) Seraiki (Southern Lahnda/Multani)

the term "Saraiki" is used to cover the wider region (Multani, Derewali, Bahawalpuri, Thalochi and sometimes Jhangochi and Shahpuri also)...

3) Hindko (Western Lahnda, Sarhadi,Peshwari ,Kohati, Chachi, Jandali)

This language is spoken in peshawar, mansehra and abbottabad and mostly north wastern strip of panjab and kyhber paktaonkwha or (fomer north west frontier province hence the name sarhad or sarhadi region) and it has mainly 6 dialects; Chachi, Jandali, ghebi,peshawari, sawain, kohati.



The Historical Background of 3 MAIN (Literary) LAHNDA LANGUAGES.

The British linguist George Abraham Grierson came to the conclusion that a group of dialects known collectively as "western Punjabi" or Lahnda spoken north and west of the Punjab heartland, in the Indus valley itself and on the lower reaches of the other four tributaries(excluding the Beas River), in fact constituted a language distinct from eastern or Jurdga Punjabi.He christened this group of dialects "Lahindā" in a volume of the Language Survey of India(LSI) published in 1919. what he called North-eastern Lahnda is now known as panjistani,

North-Western or western Lahnda (see LSI by Gierson)

this is usually called Hindko (Peshawari, Sarhadi/Hinku covering peshawar, mansehra, abbottabad in khyber paktonwka and attock distt. (of extreme north-western panjab).

And Southern Lahnda (see again Grierson's's LSI)

This is usually known as Seraiki (Derwali, Sindhi Seraiki, Multani), covering bahawalpur, multan and southern panjab

Historical background.    

Grierson tentatively identified the boundary between Punjabi and "Lahnda" as a north-south linerunning from the Gujranwala District to the former Montgomery District (near the town onSahiwal). This line lies well west of Lahore and within the boundary of Pakistan.  

The above (3 lahnda) literary lanuages have had semi-official status (since 1981) in pakistan.      

Asceratined by M. Afzal, London, UK ;2002 and some others.